OBE OUTCOMES & PROFILES

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1. Introduction

This document serves as the main reference to list the main OBE outcomes and profiles at the School of Aerospace Engineering, USM. These lists are the:

  1. Program Educational Objectives (PEO)
  2. Program Outcomes (PO)
  3. Knowledge Profiles (KP)
  4. Range of Complex Engineering Problem (CP)
  5. Range of Complex Engineering Activities (CA)
  6. Learning Domains (LD)

The School’s PEO and PO have been established through a rigorous process involving key stakeholders (which include academic staffs, aerospace engineering industries, students, and parents). The process was initiated in 2005 and later reviewed and updated continually through a series of workshops and assessments over the years. Details of this process can be referred to in the School’s SAR Reporti.

The lists of KP, CP, and CA are obtained from the recent document in 2013 published by the International Engineering Allianceii (IEA) to update the criteria for engineering graduates as established in the Washington Accord. The list of LDs are based on the six categories of cognitive domain based on the revised Bloom’s Taxanomyiii, the five categories of the affective domain, and the six categories of the psychomotor domain. The affective and psychomotor domains are as described in the document by Wilsoniv.

2. Lists

2.1. Program Educational Objectives (PEO)

Our graduates are expected to achieve one or more of the following PEO within five years of graduation from our program:

  1. Excel in engineering practices in various industries.
  2. Establish themselves as leaders in their professional careers.
  3. Earn an advanced degree or professional certification.

2.2. Program Outcomes (PO)

 

The School’s PO are based on the effort and documentation for the previous EAC accreditation exercise in March 2015. These PO characterize the attributes of the School’s graduates, in accordance to the Graduate Attributes defined in the 2013 IEA document. The POs were reviewed and approved by the school board on 13 November 2013.

 

 

Table 1: Program Outcomes
     
 PO  Category  Description
 PO1  Engineering  Apply   knowledge of mathematics, science   and engineering
 Knowledge  fundamentals to solve complex engineering problems particularly in
 aerospace engineering.
 PO2  Problem Analysis  Identify, formulate and analyze complex engineering problems to an
 extent   of obtaining meaningful   conclusions using principles   of
 mathematics, science and engineering.
 PO3  Designing Solutions  Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems,
 components or   processes to within   the prescribed specifications
 relevant to aerospace engineering with appropriate considerations for
 public health and safety, society and environmental impact.
 PO4  Investigation  Investigate complex aerospace engineering problems using research-
 based knowledge   and research methods   to provide justified
 conclusions.
 PO5  Modern Tool Usage  Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern
 engineering and computational tools to complex engineering activities
 with an understanding of the limitations.
 PO6  The Engineer and  Apply appropriate reasoning to assess contemporary societal, health,
 Society  safety and   legal issues to   establish responsibilities relevant   to
 professional engineering practice.
 PO7  Environment and  Demonstrate the knowledge of and need for sustainable development
 Sustainability  in providing professional engineering solutions.
 PO8  Ethics  Apply   ethical principles and   commit to professional ethics   and
 responsibilities and norms of engineering practice.
 PO9  Communication  Communicate   effectively both orally   and in writing   on complex
 engineering activities with the engineering community and society.
 PO10  Individual and Team  Function successfully and efficiently as an individual, and as a member
 Work  or leader in multi-disciplinary teams.
 PO11  Lifelong Learning  Recognize the need for, and is capable to undertake life-long learning in
 the broadest context of knowledge and technological change.
 PO12  Project Management  Apply knowledge and understanding of project management and
 and Finance  finance to engineering projects.
     

 

 

 

2.3. Knowledge Profiles (KP)

 

The list of KP define indicated volume of learning and attributes against which graduates must be able to perform. The list is used to extend and clarify the definition of the Graduate Attributes (see the PO list above). This list of KP, extracted verbatim from the 2013 IEA document is:

 

 

Table 2: Knowledge Profiles
     
 KP  Category  Description
 KP1  Natural Sciences  A systematic, theory-based understanding of the natural sciences applicable
 to the discipline.
 KP2  Mathematics  Conceptually-based mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and formal
 aspects of computer and information science to support analysis and
 modelling applicable to the discipline.
 KP3  Engineering  A   systematic, theory-based formulation   of engineering fundamentals
 Fundamentals  required in the engineering discipline.
 KP4  Specialist  Engineering specialist knowledge that provides theoretical frameworks and
 Knowledge  bodies of knowledge for the accepted practice areas in the engineering
 discipline; much is at the forefront of the discipline.
 KP5  Engineering  Knowledge that supports engineering design in a practice area.
 Design
 KP6  Engineering  Knowledge of engineering practice (technology) in the practice areas in the
 Practice  engineering discipline.
 KP7  Societal Roles  Comprehension of the role of engineering in society and identified issues in
 engineering practice   in the discipline:   ethics and the   professional
 responsibility of an engineer to public safety; the impacts of engineering
 activity: economic, social, cultural, environmental and sustainability.
 KP8  Research  Engagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the
 Literature  discipline.

 

 

2.4. Range of Complex Engineering Problem (CP)

 

The list of CP (see Table 3) clarifies the definition of Complex Engineering Problem by establishing seven range, or characteristics, of problem solving. Based on this list of CP, the attributes of a Complex Engineering Problem is that it must have CP1 and some or all of CP2 to CP7.

 

 

Table 3: Complex Engineering Problem Profiles

 

 CP Characteristic  Description
 CP1  Depth of knowledge required  Cannot be resolved without in-depth engineering knowledge at
 the level of one or more of KP3, KP4, KP5, KP6 or KP8 which
 allows a fundamentals-based, first principles analytical approach.
 CP2  Range of conflicting  Involve wide-ranging or conflicting technical, engineering and
 requirements  other issues.
 CP3  Depth of analysis required  Have   no obvious solution   and require abstract   thinking,
 originality in analysis to formulate suitable models.
 CP4  Familiarity of issues  Involve infrequently encountered issues.
  CP5  Extent of applicable codes  Are outside problems encompassed by standards and codes of
   practice for professional engineering.
  CP6  Extent of stakeholder  Involve diverse groups of stakeholders with widely varying
   involvement and conflicting  needs.
   requirements
  CP7  Interdependence  Are high level problems including many component parts or sub-
     problems.

 

 

 

2.5. Range of Complex Engineering Activities (CA)

 

There are five attributes of activities students can be involved in when solving Complex Engineering Problem, as defined in the 2013 IEA document for the Washington Accord graduates. A Complex Engineering Activity or Project is that which has some or all of the following attributes:

 

 

Table 4: Range of Complex Engineering Activities
 CA  Attributes  Description
 CA1  Range of resources  Involve the use of diverse resources (and for this purpose
 resources includes   people, money, equipment,   materials,
 information and technologies).
 CA2  Level of interactions  Require   resolution of significant   problems arising from
 interactions between   wide-ranging or conflicting   technical,
 engineering or other issues.
 CA3  Innovation  Involve creative use of engineering principles and research-
 based knowledge in novel ways.
 CA4  Consequences to society and  Have   significant consequences in   a range of   contexts,
 the environment  characterized by difficulty of prediction and mitigation.
 CA5  Familiarity  Can extend beyond previous experiences by applying principles-
 based approaches.

 

 

2.6. Learning Domains (LD)

 

The LD are based on the three learning domains (cognitive, affective, psychomotor) and their categories. For the purpose of student assessment at PPKAe, these categories will be reclassified into twelve levels of LD. These levels are listed below:

 

 

Table 5: Six levels of the Cognitive Domain 

 

LD Category Description
LD1 Remembering Recognizing or recalling knowledge from memory.   Remembering is when memory is used to produce definitions, facts, or lists, or recite or retrieve material.
LD2 Understanding Constructing meaning from different types of functions be they written or graphic messages activities like interpreting, exemplifying classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing, and explaining.
LD3 Applying Carrying out or using a procedure through executing, or implementing. Applying related and refers to situations where learned material is used through products like models, presentations, interviews or simulations.
LD4 Analyzing Breaking material or concepts into parts, determining how the parts relate or interrelate to one another or to an overall structure or purpose. Mental actions included in this function are differentiating, organizing, and attributing, as well as being able to distinguish between the components or parts. When one is analyzing he/she can illustrate this mental function by creating spreadsheets, surveys, charts, or diagrams, or graphic representations.
LD5 Evaluating Making judgments based on criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. Critiques, recommendations, and reports are some of the products that can be created to demonstrate the processes of evaluation. In the newer taxonomy evaluation comes before creating as it is often a necessary part of the precursory behavior before creating something.
LD6 Creating Putting elements together to form a coherent or functional whole; reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generating, planning, or producing. Creating requires users to put parts together in a new way or synthesize parts into something new and different a new form or product. This process is the most difficult mental function in the new taxonomy.

 

Table 6: Three levels (based on the original five categories) of the Affective Domain

 

LD Category Description
LD7 Receiving This refers to the learner’s sensitivity to the existence of stimuli – awareness, willingness to receive, or selected attention.
LD7 Responding This refers to the learners’ active attention to stimuli and his/her motivation to learn – acquiescence, willing responses, or feelings of satisfaction.
LD8 Valuing This refers to the learner’s beliefs and attitudes of worth – acceptance, preference, or commitment. An acceptance, preference, or commitment to a value.
LD8 Organization This refers to the learner’s internalization of values and beliefs involving (1) the conceptualization of values; and (2) the organization of a value system. As values or beliefs become internalized, the leaner organizes them according to priority.
LD9 Characterization This refers to the learner’s highest of internalization and relates to behaviour that reflects (1) a generalized set of values; and (2) a characterization or a philosophy about life. At this level the learner is capable of practicing and acting on their values or beliefs.

 

 

 

Table 7: Three levels (based on the five original categories) of the Simpson’s Psychomotor Domain

 

LD Category Description
LD10 Perception The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation.
LD10 Set Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets).
LD11 Guided Response The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing.
LD11 Mechanism This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency.
LD12 Complex / Overt Response The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce.
LD12 Adaptation Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements.
LD12 Origination Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills.

 

 

 

 

References

  1. Self Assessment Report (SAR) of Aerospace Engineering Programme, Universiti Sains Malaysia (2012)
  2. Graduate Attributes and Professional Competencies (Version 3), International Engineering Alliance (2013)
  3. David R. Krathwohl, A revision of Bloom’s Taxonomy, Theory into Practice, 2002.
  4. Leslie Owen Wilson, Three Domains of Learning – Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor, http://thesecondprinciple.com/instructional-design/threedomainsoflearning/